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what is the grounding problem

What is the relation between a clay statue andthe lump of clay from which it is made? According to the resulting structural-constitution view, when individuals constitute a group of a certain kind, they do so in virtue of exhibiting the structure characteristic of groups of that kind. The U.S. NEC and the UK's BS 7671 list systems that are required to be grounded. different voices apart. questionable the pluralist has some overlooked resources; and (iii) there is some reason for optimism about the pluralist’s This is the grounding problem. The upshot is that the solution I offer is not only non-revisionary, but also fruitful. Proper Grounding . Most often, the predicates employed in such arguments to express the crucial property are predicates expressing ‘temporal properties’, such as existing at a certain time; or ‘modal properties’, such as possibly being spherical; or ‘constitution properties’, such as being made of a certain sort of material. there remains the question of whether or not material objects are a second sort of substance. This is a suggestion according to which states of affairs exist thanks to, rather than, as is the common view, in spite of, the infinite regress their metaphysical explanation seems to engender. Thus, by Leibniz's Law, Lumpl is not identical to Goliath. If that were all that grounding or earthing implied, there would be little problem with it. Monists hold that they are identical; pluralists that they are distinct. In order to screen off certain issues about time, let's consider Alan Gibbard's (1975) example of Lumpl and Goliath. I argue that this question demands an answer and that the only plausible answer is one that posits a difference in the form of the two objects. Concrete particular objects (e.g. Much of the value of the comparison to statues and lumps is that it calls to mind the resources used to defend constitution-As-identity, most notably that of counterpart theory. Non-concrete objects—objects that aren’t concrete, but possibly are—have been used (by Bernard Linsky, Ed Zalta and Timothy Williamson) in defense of the claim that everything necessarily exists. What is the Grounding Problem? The NEC discusses equipment grounding conductors in detail in Section 250 — Grounding. Philosophy)--University of Waikato, 1985. I clarify this worry and show that attempts to dismiss or solve it miss its point. The collapse turns on the question of how to ground the facts stated by the explanations themselves. A proper understanding of truth–makers, then, invalidates at once the crude construal of the grounding objection expressed in Robert Adams's statement of the problem and again in Alfred Freddoso's and Thomas Flint's respective formulations of the grounding objection: However, many philosophers have suggested that this apparent difference in properties is the product of a linguistic illusion; there is just one thing out there, but different sorts or guises under which it may be described. In view of the device-like characteristics reported for single atoms on surfaces5,6, the possibilities for perhaps the ultimate in device miniaturization are evident. Whilst not everyone will accept it, it's going to appeal to many philosophers and (at the least) should no longer be relegated to the annals of the history of metaphysics.1. necessary connections between material things and their material origins. Now a number of solutions to the grounding problem require that we substantially revise our view of reality. between Lumpl and Goliath, but that the pluralist’s theory lacks the resources to give any such explanation. clearly legitimate are easy for the pluralist to meet; (ii) that even in cases of explanatory demands whose legitimacy is Microphysical supervenience involves intrinsic qualitative properties that supervene on microphysical structures. A problem called the symbol grounding problem is concerned with the ways in which words come to be associated with their meanings, and by extension, how consciousness is related to the understanding of symbolic meaning. The article gives reasons for preferring the non-concretist solution over these other non-material partist views and defends it against objections. Human persons are constituted by bodies, without being identical to the bodies that constitute them—just as, I argue, statues are constituted by pieces of bronze, say, without being identical to the pieces of bronze that constitute them. According to strong pluralism, objects distinct by virtue of their modal properties can coincide. Following Wechsler and Zlatić (The Many Faces of Agreement, CSLI Publications, 2003), person features exist only as features of referential indices (Index phi features), never as grammatical head features of the sort that are involved in adjective-noun concord (Concord phi features). but that such principles are deeply problematic.1 Finding an argument free of such principles would advance both our understanding and the plausibility of that thesis. A Theory of Truthmaking: Metaphysics, Ontology, and Reality, Strong Pluralism, Coincident Objects and Haecceitism, How Counterpart Theory Saves Nonreductive Physicalism, Animalism and the Vagueness of Composition, Towards a Hylomorphic Solution to the Grounding Problem, Constitutionalism, Cheap Indeterminism and the Grounding Problem, A grounding solution to the grounding problem, Sorting Out the Sortals: A Fregean Argument for Essentialism, Theories of Masses and Problems of Constitution, The Philosophical Writings of Descartes [CSM], Defending Coincidence: An Explanation of a Sort, Eigler, D. M. & Schweizer, E. K. Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope. The most common objection towards such view invokes the so-called Grounding Problem according to which the strong pluralist needs to explain what the grounds are for supposed modal differences between the coincidents. At most one can argue that it is a problem we can live with. ‘Salt is an incredibly grounding material, as it is literally of the earth,’ says Greenlaw. Proponents ofgrounding tend to claim that grounding is unitary (Audi 2012; Rosen2010; Schaffer 2009). The statue is claimed to have some property P that the piece of alloy lacks (or vice versa), and hence it is concluded that they are distinct. Co-location is compatible with the doctrine of microphysical supervenience. 336 S. Harnad/ The symbol grounding problem "symbolic" model of the mind: The mind is a symbol system and cognition is symbol manipula- tion. In this paper, I provide a solution to this problem that does not require such a revision. (TCE) comme principe juridique régulateur de l’action de la Communauté. Grounding could affect thousands of Boeing plane orders. We often disagree about what inhabits the bottom layer (or even if there is one), but we agree that higher up we find chemical, biological, geological, psychological, sociological, economic, etc., entities: molecules, human beings, diamonds, mental states, cities, interest rates, and so on. In a previous work, we defined the main condition that must be satisfied by any strategy in order to provide a valid solution to the SGP, namely the zero The objection is called the Grounding Problem:4 the pluralist is alleged to be unable to explain, and so ground, the di erences she claims between Lumpl and Goliath. All rights reserved. Here we report the use of the STM at low temperatures (4 K) to position individual xenon atoms on a single-crystal nickel surface with atomic precision. This paper defends the possibility of such coincidence against the main argument to the contrary, the 'Indiscernibility Argument'. The Boeing 737 MAX has been the company’s fastest selling model in its history — with 5,123 planes ordered by airlines as of … * Cross-ontology goal translation: given a utility function over a latent variable in one model, find an equivalent utility function over latent variables in another model with a different ontology. I explore the question of whether there really is any problem of this sort. In a recent paper, Kit Fine has noted that such predicates suffer from various defects that make it possible for the monist to plausibly resist the relevant versions of the pluralist's arguments. C’est pourquoi, leur analyse doit se faire uniquement dans cette perspective du droit communautaire, oubliant leur sens commun ou la signification qu’ils ont à l’intérieur d’autres sphères du droit. Two different objects, such as Socrates and the lump of tissue of which he is constituted, can be co-located objects that supervene on different sets of properties. I attempt to show that this 'opacity' defence has intolerable consequences for the functioning of our language and that the original argument should therefore be allowed to stand. Grounding or earthing is a therapeutic technique that focuses on realigning your electrical energy by reconnecting to the earth. of the matter. No problem! A grounding electrode conductor (GEC) is used to connect the system grounded ("neutral") conductor, or the equipment to a grounding electrode, or a point on the grounding electrode system.This is called "system grounding" and most electrical systems are required to be grounded. The weakness of the argument becomes apparent once we understand how the modal is grounded in the non- modal. prospects for meeting every legitimate explanatory demand. Mereological nominalism is the thesis that properties are identical to fusions of their instances. Lumpl and Goliath seem to be nonmodally indiscernible: they seem to share all their nonmodal features, both intrinsic and relational.1 It is this that the inuential, Thesis (M.Soc.Sc. The symbol grounding problem is not just the problem of attaching formal symbols to the world, for an UNGROUNDED symbol system (like English or geometry) will serve that purpose admirably well (as long as it has the right formal, syntactic properties). But the account offered shows that non-concreta are independently useful in other domains as well. There is a wellknown argument from Leibniz's Law for the view that coincident material things may be distinct. But the kind of grounding being touted now by some naturopathic websites and doctors goes further than that. Some of the properties are shared, but others, such as the human-determining properties or the lump-determining properties, supervene only on one object or the other. How does electrical grounding work? Hence, the paper's thesis: counterpart theory saves nonreductive physicalism. These all seem to be pointing to different aspects of the same problem. In particular, I will maintain that material objects should be identified with spacetime regions. Is grounding unitary in the sense that there is a single dependencerelation in play in claims like those discussed above? The relation of constitution, therefore, is not peculiar to persons and their bodies, but is pervasive in the natural world. Saul Kripke has claimed that there are necessary connections between material things and their material origins. In short, no clearly adequate statement of a Grounding Problem is extant, and there is some reason to believe that the pluralist can overcome any Grounding Problem that we haven’t thought of yet. En outre, ce sont des concepts qui, conformément aux généralités de la doctrine européenne, sont étroitement reliés, de sorte que l’on ne peut les comprendre isolément que s’ils sont en rapport avec les autres ou que s’ils sont une manifestation ou un prolongement des autres. This capacity has allowed us to fabricate rudimentary structures of our own design, atom by atom. Pour chacune de ces entrées, on pose d'abord une question binaire qui, s'appuyant sur, In mixed agreement, different agreement targets show different values for the same controller. THE SYMBOL GROUNDING PROBLEM Stevan Harnad Department of Psychology Princeton University Princeton NJ 08544 [email protected] Débat non contradictoire, Mixed agreement, the person feature, and the index/concord distinction. However, it seems that, if determinism about the actual world is false, this should be so for reasons of physics rather than in virtue of ordinary facts about ordinary objects. Despite this, some de re modal facts are not grounded in the non-modal but instead are brute. The STM has also been used to modify surfaces, for example by locally pinning molecules to a surface3 and by transfer of an atom from the STM tip to the surface4. Towards a Hylomorphic Solution to the Grounding Problem. When something goes wrong, such as a short or fault, electricity flows safely to the earth via the grounding system. A diachronic explanation is offered for this bifurcation of agreement targets into Index and Concord targets: the former descend from incorporated pronouns while the latter have other sources. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. According to the defender of the standardaccount, the statue and the lump are distinct,enduring objects that share the same spatiallocation whenever they both exist. Fortunately, lessons may be extracted from more traditional metaphysics and applied to the case of group agents. In this paper we offer a different defence. Monists hold that they are identical; pluralists that they are distinct. Therefore, by Leibniz’s Law, the statue is not the lump. Instead, they claim that grounding is variegated in the sensethat claim… According to the friends of coincidence, Goliath and Lumpl have different modal properties: only Lumpl might have survived being squashed. In this paper I make a suggestion about how to ground explanations that avoids the collapse. It is often said that the same particles can simultaneously make up two or more material objects that differ in kind and in I argue that, no matter in which form it is defended, or in which theoretical framework it is set, this suggestion cannot provide us with the explanation we crave. The results are discussed with reference to existing debates regarding the nature of stored representations as familiarity develops, and the difficulty when processing voices over faces more generally. Many philosophers today find themselves in the grip of an exceedingly deflationary conception of what it means to be an object, according to which any plurality of objects, no matter how disparate or gerry-mandered, itself composes an object, even if the objects in question fail to exhibit interesting similarities, internal unity, cohesion, or causal interaction amongst each other. is extant, and there is some reason to believe that the pluralist can overcome any Grounding Problem that we haven’t thought I then show how my solution to the grounding problem can solve a related problem and answer a related question. The main purpose of this book is to give an analysis of ordinary material objects, those material objects to which we take ourselves to be committed in ordinary, scientifically informed discourse. The objection is roughly that the pluralist faces a legitimate explanatory demand to explain various differences she alleges the clay's ability to survive being squashed, as compared to the statue's inability to do so), even though they are otherwise so much alike. Learn more in: Symbol Grounding Problem The results suggested that familiarity supported both an ability to tell different instances of the same voice together, and to tell similar instances of, Le texte qui suit questionne les modalités d'un tel rapprochement, en proposant, sans prétention d'exhaustivité, six entrées successives qui, dans leur succession établissent une sorte d'itinéraire pour la réflexion : épistémologie, expérimentation, programmation, composition, maîtrise d'oeuvre et enseignement. How can a statue and a piece of alloy be coincident at any time at which they exist and yet differ in their modal properties? That said, we do not aim at defending haecceitism. In this paper I develop amereological answer to this question – thestatue and the lump differ with respect totheir parts and this explains theirdifference with respect to de re temporalproperties, de re modal properties andthe like. Ce sont là des concepts clés et l’un d’eux, celui de la subsidiarité, est explicitement prévu à l’article 3 B du Traité sur la Communauté européenne. Grounding is a principle of electricity that sometimes puzzles homeowners. substantivalism. But these traditional views face well-known problems. This paper is concerned with a particular objection to pluralism, the Grounding Problem. ÷CüÚµ…^±[6ÿ)™ë™ž9¹»¨:c^G2³²'EPE‚¼›˜biÌ&Âq}LáKqõ0 ª\œŸÃ_#î0yÿý ÑË¢Ú4‹0§q M‡¯e†. KeywordsSpacetime-Substantivalism-Supersubstantivalism-Monism. In cognitive science and semantics, the symbol grounding problem concerns how it is that words get their meanings, and hence is closely related to the problem of what meaning itself really is. Symbol Grounding Problem Silvia Lercher, Alexandra Heinisch 6 3 Symbolsysteme Damit wir uns dem Symbol Grounding Problem, wie es von Stevan Harnad beschrieben wurde, nähern können, müssen wir zuerst klären was denn überhaupt ein Symbol ist und was ein Symbolsystem ist. Le concept de légitimité, tout comme ceux de subsidiarité, de transparence, de démocratie, d’efficience ou de solidarité, est intimement lié au débat politique ainsi qu’aux formulations juridiques de l’Union européenne (UE). Grounding can solve many problems, but it can also cause new ones. In order to achieve that aim, we provide a haecceitistic interpretation of strong pluralism according to which strong pluralism should be read as a position committed to the existence of primitive individuals, i.e., the individuals that have their criteria of individuation independently of their qualitative profiles. Others wonder how objects made of the same parts in the same arrangement These all seem to be pointing to different aspects of the same problem. The Grounding Problem asks why an object and its matter (e.g. One of the most common problem is called "ground loop". This paper offers an explanation for the existence of mixed agreement that accounts for the following Polite Plural Generalization: universally, any second person ‘polite plural’ pronouns (e.g. This method insures that the grounding conductor will not be bypassed. Drawing on such lessons, I present a novel account of the constitution relation holding between individuals and group agents. Nonreductive physicalism faces serious problems regarding causal exclusion, causal heterogeneity, and the nature of realization. edited 3 months ago. a statue and the clay that constitutes it) can apparently differ with respect to certain of their properties (e.g. Reprenant l'argument de la statue afin de montrer que le discobole est un morceau de bronze, l'A. This leads to the standard objection tothe standard account: if the statue and thelump of clay have the same microphysicalstructure whenever they both exist, how canthey differ in their de re temporalproperties, de re modal properties and soon? In a modern home, almost every part of the electrical system is grounded, meaning it has an unbroken (if usually not direct) connection to the earth outside the house. The scientific successes of the last 400 years strongly suggest a picture on which our scientific theories exhibit a layered structure of dependence and determination. Thomas Sattig has argued recently that constitutionalism renders determinism about the actual world false, just in virtue of ordinary facts about ordinary middle-sized material objects. Suchobjects also seem to share the samemicrophysical structure whenever they bothexist. SINCE its invention in the early 1980s by Binnig and Rohrer 1,2, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) has provided images of surfaces and adsorbed atoms and molecules with unprecedented resolution. and by Ross Cameron and Sonia Roca (2006, henceforth ‘CR’), and we welcome the opportunity to clarify and improve our account Mixed agreement arises if the ‘polite plural’ or other pronominal controller is underspecified for Concord phi features. Our argument proceeds from more modest ‘independence principles’, which govern the processes by which material objects are produced. I argue in detailthat they cannot say that there is anything invirtue of which spatio-temporally coincidentthings have those properties. I break from other philosophers who have pursued this line, however, in that I hold that constitution is identity. Independence principles are motivated, in turn, by appeal to a plausible metaphysical principle governing such processes, their invulnerability to non-local prevention. A compelling idea holds that reality has a layered structure. The Grounding Problem is an explanatory problem: the pluralist is alleged to be unable to explain the differences If identity properties turn out, contrary to appearances, to be modal properties, then the claim that modal properties strongly supervene on non-modal properties is implausible, quite independently of the pluralism-monism dispute. I also endorse a novel, empirical argument in favor of counterpart theory. The problem related to the requirement of symbols to be grounded in something else then other symbols, if a symbol is to represent something to an artificial system. It has been the verdict of much Grounding naysayers tend to claim that grounding isn'tunitary. I take as my inspiration the view that mental tokens are constituted by physical tokens in the same way statues are constituted by lumps of clay. that the argument did not depend on so-called sufficiency principles for crossworld identity. developpe un argument essentialiste contre la these selon laquelle la constitution des choses materielles etablit une identite. A Grounding Solution to the Grounding Problem. What causes the humming in audio systems ? We know since Fregethat the thing that a word refers to (i.e., its referent) is not the same as its meaning (or "sense"). In ‘A New Route to the Necessity of Origin’ (2004, henceforth ‘NR’), we offered an argument for the thesis that there are We outline the new argument, and distinguish it from both of the usual defences. I then show how my solution to the grounding problem can solve a related problem and answer a related question. In this paper, we argue that strong pluralism can be motivated independently of the successful answer to the Grounding Problem. Long ignored, this paper argues that it's a plausible ontology of properties. In short, no clearly adequate statement of a Grounding Problem A philosophical standard in the debates concerning material constitution is the case of a statue and a lump of clay, Lumpl and Goliath respectively. Several social metaphysicians have argued that groups are constituted by, but not identical to, their members. tl;dr: I argue that the symbol grounding problem is not an abstract philosophical problem, but a practical issue that it is useful and necessary for algorithms to solve, empirically, to at least some extent.. I will defend the monistic view. In this paper, I argue that we can resist this temptation: we can explain the sense in which, e.g., the biological truths are dependent on and determined by chemical truths without appealing to properly biological or chemical entities. Bibliography: [3] leaves (2nd sequence), What is the relation between material objects and spacetime regions? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006). Question: What grounds the kind and modal differences between the statue and the lump? their mental, biological and other qualitative properties. Earth grounding incorporates Eastern religious practices and terms such as yoga and chakra (an energy center within the human body). Grounding is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size. * Cross-ontology goal translation: given a utility function over a latent variable in one model, find an equivalent utility function over latent variables in another model with a different ontology. So, if there is a problem with the neutral wire, grounding your electrical system will provide a direct pathway to the ground and prevent power surges that can invite electrical hazards. Statues and lumps of clay (to take one example) are said by some to coincide—to be numerically distinct despite being made up of the same parts. Nature 344, 524-526, The Non-Identity of a Thing with Its Matter, Material Coincidence and the Indiscernibility Problem, Yet Another Paper on the Supervenience Argument Against Coincident Entities*, The Standard Objection to the Standard Account, Spatio-Temporal Coincidence and the Grounding Problem. claims are now the subject of a pair of insightful critiques by Teresa Robertson and Graeme Forbes (2006, henceforth ‘RF’) But honest ethical theorizing does seem to pressure us into asking them, if we’re interesting in figuring out the truth. and surroundings could differ in these ways. Since Lumpl and Goliath are clearly made up of the same parts, they coincide. Grounding explanations tell us what obtains in virtue of what. The proposed solutions all depend crucially on embracing modal counterpart theory. This is the question of dualistic versus monistic In essence, the grounding system is a \"backup\" pathway that provides an alternate route for electrical current to follow back to \"ground\" in the case of a problem in the wiring system. Fine argues that any attempt on the monist's part to resist his versions of the argument force the monist to adopt implausible positions in the philosophy of language. Can different material objects have the same parts at all times at which they exist? A hylomorphic analysis of concrete particular objects holds that these entities are, in some sense, compounds of matter ( hÅ«lē ) and form ( morphē or eidos ). This is the problem of cheap indeterminism. L'A. This is the grounding problem. In this paper I advance solutions to each of those problems. However, I alsoargue that this may not be as bad as it looks,and that there is a way to make sense of theclaim that such properties are primitive. They claim that, just as our default positionwith respect to synchronic identity, causation, parthood, and the likeis that they're unitary, the same is true of grounding. When a charged object is grounded, the excess charge is balanced by the transfer of electrons between the charged object and a ground. This is most clearly illustrated using the proper names of concrete individuals, but it is also true of names of kinds of things and of abstract properties: (1) "Tony Blair," (2) "the UK's former prime minister," and (3) "Cheri Blair's husband" all have the same referent, but not the same meaning. However, although we cannot explain why a particular object has the basic modal properties it has, we can explain a closely related, semantic fact and, comparing the facts we can't explain to more familiar brute facts, we understand why there should be no better explanation. The problem of meaning is in turn related to the problem of how it is that mental states are meaningful, hence to the problem of consciousness: what is the connection between certain physical systems and the contents of subjective experiences. This article is the second step in our research into the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP). This structure-based conception of parthood and composition is explored in detail, along with some of its historical precursors as well as some of its contemporary competitors. Goliath is the statue created in this process. Unfortunately, the use of grounding explanations to articulate the layered conception faces a problem, which I call the collapse. How is this intuitive talk of a layered structure of entities to be understood? The possibility of generating complex behav- ior through symbol manipulation was empirically demonstrated by successes in … Now a number of solutions to the grounding problem require that we substantially revise our view of reality. ‘So bathing with salt – something like Himalayan or Epsom – works well.’ ABSTRACT: There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. I argue that some familiar strategies to explicate the idea of a layered structure of theories by appeal to reduction, ground, and truthmaking encounter difficulties. KeywordsMetaphysics–Material constitution–Coincidence–The Grounding Problem–Supervenience–Explanation, Four dimensionalism: An ontology of persistence and time, The present paper reports on one experiment designed to examine the importance of familiarity when processing vocal identity. If the equipment grounding conductor is present, the preferred method for solving the missing safety ground problem is to install a new three-prong outlet in the outlet box. As a result, we can see how coincidence is, after all, possible. Call those who think there are at least two things before you in such a case pluralists . The project of this book is to persuade the reader that systematic principles by means of which composition can be restricted can be found, and hence, that we need not embrace this deflationary approach to the question of what it means to be an object. As recognized in the literature, the failure to provide an answer to the Grounding Problem critically undermines the plausibility of strong pluralism. Suchpeople have to provide an answer to the`grounding problem' – they have to explain howsuch things, alike in so many ways, nonethelessmanage to fall under different sortals, or havedifferent modal properties. Same place for theentire time during which they compose » ¨: &... Que le discobole est un morceau de bronze, l ' a clearly made up of the problem. Clarify this worry and show that attempts to dismiss or solve it miss its.! Pluralists can not provide an answer to the wholes which they exist that view its matter ( e.g to the! Un argument essentialiste contre la these selon laquelle la constitution des choses materielles etablit une.... To read the full-text of this sort coincident material things and their material origins these all seem to be?... Non-Person-Agreeing targets such as predicate adjectives vary across languages, between syntactic and semantic agreement... Alan Gibbard 's ( 1975 ) example of Lumpl and Goliath are coincident their! Clay that constitutes it fail to share all of their properties ( e.g those. Usual defences of such coincidence against the main argument to the story, Lumpl and Goliath are coincident throughout respective! Crucially on embracing modal counterpart theory saves nonreductive physicalism faces serious problems regarding causal exclusion, heterogeneity... Into asking them, if we’re interesting in figuring out the truth in order screen... Doctrine of microphysical supervenience involves intrinsic qualitative properties that supervene on microphysical structures argument from! My solution to this problem that does not require such a revision what grounds the kind and modal between... Grounding or earthing implied, there would be little problem with it and distinguish it from of. Is not peculiar to persons and bodies develops and defends it against objections constitution is identity is it that argument... The grounding problem thesis: counterpart theory objects distinct by virtue of what coincidence the. It can also cause new ones when a charged object is grounded in the same problem grounding conductors detail. Earth via the grounding problem can solve the problem of cheap indeterminism and the nature realization..., the suggestion is that the fact stated by a grounding explanation is grounded, the statue not... Ethical theorizing does seem to pressure us into asking them, if we’re interesting figuring. Offer is not peculiar to persons and bodies develops and defends an of. Electricity that sometimes puzzles homeowners relation of constitution, therefore, is not identical to Goliath clay from which is. Un argument essentialiste contre la these selon laquelle la constitution des choses etablit. According to the case of group agents than that I break from philosophers! In turn, by appeal to explanations of a layered structure of entities to be by. Vocal identity: results from a voice sorti... Entre architecture et sciences sociales that... Endorse a novel account of the relation of constitution, therefore, not. Argument to the earth, ’ says Greenlaw supervenience involves intrinsic qualitative properties supervene. Asking these “why” questions the proposed solutions all depend crucially on embracing modal counterpart theory clay from it... Differ with respect to certain of their instances briefly, the suggestion is that the lump of,. They compose against the main argument to the earth via the grounding conductor not. The view that coincident material things and their material origins the nature of electrical equipments plausible alternative is that fact! Pluralism run as follows so-called sufficiency principles for crossworld identity – works well.’ grounding could affect of! Are distinct much of the same location can be arranged so as to constitute more one! The earth, ’ says Greenlaw is one thing before you is a statue and the clay constitutes... That constitutes it fail to share all of their properties ( e.g the device-like characteristics reported for single on... In terms of either reduction or supervenience said, we do not at... Plane orders philosophers have proposed to understand its importance to a plausible alternative is that layered.! Know something about the world websites and doctors goes further than that termed grounding explanations articulate... However, in turn, by Leibniz 's Law, Lumpl is not statue. Sense that there is anything invirtue of which spatio-temporally coincidentthings have those properties explore question. Something about the nature of realization sort, termed grounding explanations tell us obtains... Constitution view is promising, there are at least two things before you in such a case pluralists Saenz! Argued that groups are constituted by, but also fruitful be bypassed intrinsic qualitative properties supervene... A result, we argue that strong pluralism can be motivated independently of the most common for... That were all that grounding is a single dependencerelation in play in claims those... All times at which they exist provides a theoretical setting in which we fruitfully... Metaphysics - a theory of Truthmaking - by Jamin Asay grounding explanations articulate... Unitary ( Audi 2012 ; Rosen2010 ; Schaffer 2009 ) precisely the same problem principle governing processes... We substantially revise our view of reality 's ( 1975 ) example of Lumpl and Goliath coincident... Solve it miss its point sufficiency principles for crossworld identity the author the possibility of such coincidence against the argument... Reprenant l'argument de la statue afin de montrer que le discobole est un morceau de bronze, '... Clay, but not identical to Goliath monistic substantivalism the literature, the feature! Certain of their modal properties: only Lumpl might have survived being squashed between syntactic and semantic number.! Facts are not grounded in its explanans, causal heterogeneity, and the nature of realization have. Things before you in such a case pluralists parts, they coincide Epsom – works well.’ could... Not require such a revision is one thing before you is a we... Of realization investigate an unorthodox attempt to metaphysically explain in virtue of is... A voice sorti... Entre architecture et sciences sociales the upshot is that the argument becomes once. Can argue that strong pluralists can not provide an explanation of the common. Of some alloy that distinct objectscan occupy precisely the same time electrical flow! Despite this, some de re modal facts are not grounded in the literature, the,! Surroundings could differ in these ways clay from which it is literally of successful. By appeal to explanations of a certain sort, termed grounding explanations to the. Of reality defends it against objections these ways interesting in figuring out the truth is called `` ground loop.. Electrons between the charged object and a ground a certain sort, termed grounding explanations syntactic and number! To different aspects of the world: of this research, you can request a copy directly from the.! Its explanans 's a plausible metaphysical principle governing such processes, their members us what obtains in virtue what. Unitary in the same problem design, atom by atom outline the new argument, and the lump adjectives. A theoretical setting in which we might fruitfully frame debates about which entities there really any... Constitution des choses materielles etablit une identite Harnad @ cogsci.soton.ac.uk they compose relation between a clay statue lump! Of reality processes, their invulnerability to non-local prevention you can request a directly. Causal heterogeneity, and is later destroyed instantaneously while still in statue form, and grounding! Matter ( e.g their kind and modal differences between the charged object is grounded in the that... Such lessons, I show how my solution to this problem that does not require a! Problem that does not require such a case pluralists any such prob-lem versus monistic substantivalism long,! Unitary ( Audi 2012 ; Rosen2010 ; Schaffer 2009 ) discobole est un de. To dismiss or solve it miss its point de re modal facts are not grounded in literature... An object and a ground the friends of coincidence, Goliath and Lumpl have different properties! Constitution is identity I offer is not the statue, can survive being smashed fundamental properties are identical ; that... Monists hold that constitution is identity supervene on microphysical structures by Leibniz’s Law, Lumpl a...: c^G2³²'EPE‚¼›˜biÌ & Âq } LáKqõ0 ª\œŸÃ_ # î0yÿý ÑË¢Ú4‹0§q M‡¯e† such necessity of origin principle or a model... Strong pluralists can not provide an explanation of the argument did not depend on so-called sufficiency principles for crossworld.! Only thing before you in such a case pluralists a principle of electricity that sometimes puzzles.. Survive being smashed new argument, and the clay that is synthesized in statue form, and later!... what is the grounding problem architecture et sciences sociales and group agents they coincide capacity has allowed us fabricate... Holds that reality has a layered structure in terms of either reduction or supervenience perhaps ultimate. As to constitute more than one object at the same parts in the sense that there are necessary connections material... Plane orders also seem to share all of their modal properties: Lumpl!, and distinguish it from both of the constitution relation holding between individuals and group.. To constitute more than one object at the same problem to this problem that does not require such case! Consider Alan Gibbard 's ( 1975 ) example of Lumpl and Goliath we might fruitfully frame about! Us to fabricate rudimentary structures of our own design, atom by atom assume that solution... Contre la these selon laquelle la constitution des choses materielles etablit une identite certain sort termed! Thing before you is a single dependencerelation in play in claims like those above. Spacetime manifold, and the lump the problem of cheap indeterminism and the index/concord distinction partist views and an... Non-Concretist solution over these other non-material partist views and defends it against objections and! Sorting task was used with participants who were either personally familiar or unfamiliar with speakers. Problem and answer a related problem and answer a related problem and answer a related question is, after,!

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